Robert Cliver received his M.A. in history from the University of Hawaii at Manoa in 1995 and his Ph.D. in history from Harvard University in 2007. He is a historian of Twentieth-Century China whose work focuses on labor and industry in the decades following the Communist revolution of 1949. While most of his research focuses on modern China, he has a life-long interest in world history and pre-modern East Asia, especially cultural and economic exchanges along the silk road. Dr. Cliver is currently employed as an assistant professor in the history department at Humboldt State University in California, USA, where he teaches courses in the history of China, Japan, Russia, East Asia, and the world.